Scottish history


In the beginning of 2nd millenium B.C. there were small communities on the west coast, Shetlands and Orkney Islands. The Romans, which called it Caledonia, tried to invade it between A.D. 82 and 208, but they were unsuccessful. In the 5th century, Scotland was split among the Picts, Britons, Gaelic Scots from Dalriadia in Northern Ireland, and Angles. In the late roman times, Christianity was introduce to the public for the very first time and it was organized by the Celtic clergy from Ireland. The empire of Scots and the Picts was unified by Kenneth I in around 483 to constitute one kingdom, Alba, where Scots refinement and its language became paramount.

The rule of Scotland stretch to Lothian and Strathclyde in the rule of Malcolm II, from 1005-34, and from 1034-40 in the rule of Duncan I. English king Edward I tried to put direct rule over Scotland in 1296 and started a war. Scottish independence was acquired by Robert I ‘The Bruce’ in 1328. In 1371 the dynasty of Stewart uphold Scotland’s coalition with France, in the time of Scottish reformation it was under attack, and was led by John Knox. In 1560 the main religion was Protestantism, and in 1567, the protestant nobles forced Mary Queen of Scots to relinquish its position. In 1603 James VI of Scotland became James I of England and because of these the English and Scottish crowns were united. It was only in 1707 that the political union was establish. Later in 1714 the Hanoverians inherit the throne, but the Jacobite supporters of the Stuart dynasty plot a rebellion that was unsuccessful in 1715 and 1745.

In the mid 18th century, Scottish people accomplished cultural enlightenment. These was also the time when the Jacobite rebellions failed leading to the stoppage of the clan system. In the 19th century the landowners started sheep farming thus clearing space and leading to the dispossession of tenants and crofters, also known as the “Highland Clearances”. In the late 18th century Scotland’s industrial revolution began but during the 20th century heavy industries slumped. Fresh industries such as micro electronics and North Sea oil became dull but did not come to a stop. In the 1970’s a stream of support for Scottish nationalism incited a legislative measure on the controversial issue of limited self rule. In the 1990’s Scotland faced great unemployment, in some degree it was lessen by regional and social funding by the E.C. or also known as the European Community and U.K. regional enterprise granted a certain sum of money. Since the union, they have become a separate identity, maintaining control of judicial system, churches and school. Finally Scotlandgain a new separate parliament in 1999, thus giving Scotland the authority over domestic tax laws and reinforcing their national identity.

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